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Damage and fracture of materials and structures

Set of electives offered for the second-year master (M2)

Most engineering systems and structures are designed so as to be damage tolerant. For instance, it is aimed at predicting the failure threshold for an incidental loading, so as to make sure that its cannot happen or that it won't lead to a catastrophic event. For instance, the size and the initial velocity of fragments produced by a failure can be determined when it is aimed at designing a carter. Besides, it is also aimed at predicting the life of a system or a structure for service loads. Two cases are usually considered. First of all, it will be examined how defects can be initiated and how their presence modifies the mechanical response of the material and of the structure. Secondly, it can be assumed that potential defects exists in a structure. In such a case, it is aimed at predicting how these defects can propagate, how often the structure should be controlled so as to avoid a failure during service operations. This approach, the damage tolerance method, is usually employed for security components, whose failure may cause a catastrophic event. In this set of electives, you will learn how the microstructure of a material is related to its mechanical performances during service orperations a,d how multiscale approaches allow optimizing a material for a given application. Then the mechanisms that lead to a defect initiation and the methods employed to predict the response of damaged materials and structure will be shown. Then, once a defect is initiated, it will be shown how this defect grows and leads to failure. Finally, the behaviour of materials and cracks under dynamic loading conditions is also examined.



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